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About Lesson

Python is a powerful object-oriented programming (OOP) language that utilizes classes and objects as essential components. Classes provide a blueprint for creating objects, allowing for structured organization of data and functions. In this blog post, we will explore the fundamentals of Python classes and objects, their attributes, and methods, as well as their practical applications in developing robust and maintainable code.

Defining and Instantiating Classes link to this section
To define a class in Python, we use the class keyword followed by the class name and a colon. The class body, which contains attributes and methods, is indented under the class definition. Creating an object of a class, also known as instantiation, involves calling the class name followed by parentheses.


class Dog:
def bark(self):

my_dog = Dog() # Creating an object of the Dog class
my_dog.bark() # Output: Woof!

Class Attributes and Methods link to this section
Classes consist of attributes, which store data, and methods, which define actions that the class can perform. There are two types of class components: instance attributes and methods tied to specific instances, and class attributes and methods shared by all instances of the class.

Instance Attributes and Methods
Instance attributes and methods are specific to individual instances of a class and are accessed using the `self` keyword within methods.


class Dog:
def set_name(self, name): = name

def get_name(self):

my_dog = Dog()
print(my_dog.get_name()) # Output: Buddy

Class Attributes and Methods
Class attributes and methods are shared among all instances of a class. Class attributes are defined outside of any method, while class methods use the `@classmethod` decorator.


class Dog:
species = “Canis lupus familiaris”

def get_species(cls):
return cls.species

print(Dog.species) # Output: Canis lupus familiaris
print(Dog.get_species()) # Output: Canis lupus familiaris

Static Methods
Static methods belong to a class but don’t have access to instance or class attributes. They are defined using the `@staticmethod` decorator.


class Dog:
def bark():

Dog.bark() # Output: Woof!

Constructors and Destructors link to this section
Constructors and destructors are special methods in a class that are automatically called when creating and destroying objects, respectively. The constructor method, `__init__`, initializes the object’s attributes, while the destructor method, `__del__`, performs cleanup tasks before object destruction.


class Dog:
def __init__(self, name, age): = name
self.age = age

def __del__(self):
print(f”{} has been destroyed.”)

my_dog = Dog(“Buddy”, 3)
print( # Output: Buddy
print(my_dog.age) # Output: 3
del my_dog # Output: Buddy has been destroyed.

Inheritance link to this section
Inheritance is a key concept in OOP that allows a class to inherit attributes and methods from another class, promoting code reuse and creating a logical class hierarchy. In Python, we can achieve single and multiple inheritance.

Single Inheritance
Single inheritance involves inheriting attributes and methods from a single